The industrial revolution marks a transition from the agricultural society to the industrial society. The first phase of industrialism began in Britain in the late 18th century.
Agriculture created the conditions
Agriculture in Britain had undergone major changes at this time. Until the 18th century, the land of the peasants had been divided into lots of tiger (field patches) which were usually scattered around the villages where they lived. During the 18th century, the system changed and the tigers were instead merged into larger pieces of land that individual farmers could use. Agriculture was thus more efficient, which meant that fewer farmers could support more people than before.
Developments in agriculture led to an increase in the population. At the same time, many peasants became unemployed after selling or losing their land. More and more people therefore moved into the cities where they provided the emerging industry with cheap labour. The change in agriculture with the subsequent move to the cities was together the foundation on which the industrial revolution rested.
In the UK there were also other important conditions for the industrialism to take off. The country had rich natural resources in the form of coal and iron ore. In addition, the increase in world trade and colonization had led to the existence of plenty of raw materials (e.g. cotton) and capital.
Factories, production increased
Industrialisation first took off in the textile industry, where new inventions in the form of the spin machine and the mechanical loom-which utilised the steam power-made more efficient production. In addition, with the help of steam engines, we started to concentrate the work on factories where many people could work together under one roof. Collecting production in a factory had many advantages. It was above all more cost-effective than having a dispersed production. In a factory it was easier to streamline the work process by increasing the distribution of work and the control of the work, which in turn led to the pace and production increased. These days there are companies who serve different industrial markets with gearbox repair for instance or other services.
Industrialism second phase communications
The development of communications was an important prerequisite for industrialism development. In industrialism second phase that began in the 1830 century, states and large companies began to invest in communications, mainly railways. The industrialism spread over Europe and North America. During this stage, among other things, the iron and metal industry underwent major changes in the form of new and improved processes. At the same time, large industrial cities grew where the members of the new working class often lived under difficult economic and social conditions. In the latter part of the 1800 century, therefore, labour movements, which through union and political struggle, gradually succeeded in improving workers conditions.